The American Series is an initiative of the Georgia Symphony Orchestra to explore the rich tapestry of American music. This multi-year program includes performances by all organizational ensembles: the Georgia Symphony Orchestra, GSO Chorus, GSO Jazz!, and the Georgia Youth Symphony Orchestra.
The aim of this series is to capture the quintessential essence of the wide reaching American experience, and to use the music as a means of outreach and collaboration into differing communities.
Georgia Symphony Orchestra
Saturday, February 18, 2017
Marietta Performing Arts Center
America, Vol. 1 is the first concert in a new series exploring American music. Throughout the multi-year initiative, you’ll experience the music you love to hear, and music that rings true across all the GSO ensembles. Excitement, exhilaration, the depths of solitude, and more – the first works in our series are bound by their directness of expression and genuine approach to connecting with listeners. Barber’s iconic Adagio is unforgettable in this special setting with the GSO Chamber Chorus.
Hanson: Symphony No. 2 “Romantic”
Barber: Adagio for Strings/Agnus Dei with the GSO Chamber Chorus
Copland: Old American Songs with the GSO Chorus
Born in Wahoo, Nebraska, Howard Hanson (1896-1981) did much to promote American music, and not just his own. After graduating from Northwestern University at the age of 19, he taught for a few years, then spent three years in Rome after winning the Prix de Rome. While in Rochester, New York, to conduct his “Nordic” Symphony No. 1, Op. 22, Hanson’s dynamic personality and administrative skills caught the attention of George Eastman, the founder of Kodak, who had just endowed a music school at the University of Rochester. At 28, Hanson became the first director of the Eastman School of Music, where he founded the Institute of American Music at Eastman, a project that led to the performance of music by many contemporary composers.
Inspired by the Romantics, notably the symphonies of Finland’s Jean Sibelius and the symphonic poems of Franz Liszt, Hanson wrote music that was much more traditional and conservative than that of his contemporaries. Of his five symphonies, one of the most important is his Symphony No. 2, Op. 30, the “Romantic,” of 1930. Of Symphony No. 2, Hanson wrote: “The symphony for me represents my escape from the rather bitter type of modern musical realism [that] occupies so large a place in contemporary thought. Much contemporary music seems to me to be…. entirely too cerebral. I do not believe that music is primarily a matter of the intellect, but rather a manifestation of the emotions. I have, therefore, aimed in this Symphony to create a work that was young in spirit, lyrical and romantic in temperament, and ample and direct in expression.” Joseph Machlis writes: “In an age opposed to sentiment and rhetoric, this symphony is unashamedly sentimental and rhetorical.”
Hanson’s Symphony No. 2 is in three movements, its cyclical nature reflected in the recurrence of musical ideas first heard in the opening movement. An atmospheric Adagio precedes the first movement proper, an Allegro moderato, in which dramatic fanfares alternate with more lyrical sections, among them a “chorale” for strings and solo horn. A brief coda quietly closes the movement. The second movement, Andante con tenerezza, opens and closes with one of Hanson’s most memorable and Romantic melodies. The middle section, based on motives heard in the first movement, is interrupted by florid woodwind passages. The final movement, Allegro con brio, summarizes the entire symphony as it recalls thematic materials from the first and second movements, like the first movement alternating drama and lyricism. A final fanfare builds to the symphony’s conclusion.
Samuel Barber (1910-1981), born in Westchester, Pennsylvania, was a true American prodigy, playing piano at six, composing at seven, and entering the Curtis Institute of Music at 14. He began as a pianist and a vocalist but it was as a composer that he made his mark. Although he wrote in a variety of styles - “It is said that I have no style at all," he said - like Hanson he rejected the austere style of his contemporaries and it is his melodies, such as those found in the beautiful Adagio for Strings and Knoxville: Summer of 1915, which are truly memorable. His works include three operas and a ballet as well as works for orchestra, chorus and solo voice, and piano. Barber's single organ work, “Wondrous Love,” is a set of variations on a shape-note hymn.
The Agnus Dei is a choral arrangement of the composer's Adagio for Strings, itself a string orchestra arrangement of the second movement of his String Quartet, Opus 11, written in 1936. The orchestral version was often performed by conductor Arturo Toscanini, and its sustained melodic lines and lush harmonies were used to great effect in the film Platoon. Barber received several requests for arrangements of the Adagio and transcribed the work for chorus in 1967, using the Agnus Dei text. In this work, phrases usually begin with a single voice, followed by others which fill out the underlying harmony, as a step-wise melody slowly rises and unfolds toward an intense climax. To quote J. Peter Burkholder: “The sense of suspension, of slowed-down time, creates an impression of deep feeling that can scarcely be borne...”
Brooklyn-born Aaron Copland (1900-1990), who first composed in a modernistic style, in the 1930s set out to cultivate an “American” music that was simple and direct, with generally traditional melodies and harmonies related to folk and patriotic subjects. Inspired by the Shaker tradition (Appalachian Spring), the Old West (Billy the Kid and Rodeo), and wartime patriotism (A Lincoln Portrait and Letter from Home), he broadened the appeal of serious music in the United States, also writing for children and high schoolers, and providing film scores for adaptations of works by Americans Thornton Wilder (Our Town), Lillian Hellman (North Star), Henry James (The Heiress) and John Steinbeck (Of Mice and Men). Copland believed that the creative spirit manifested itself in the music of “our America.” “…the creative act,” he wrote, “affirms the individual, and gives value to the individual, and through him to the nation of which he is a part.”
Copland’s first set of Old American Songs was written in 1950 at the request of English composer Benjamin Britten for performance at that composer’s Aldeburgh Festival; the second set followed in 1952. The songs range from folk ballads, lullabies, and revivalist hymns to popular theater numbers. Copland’s selection of songs, personally researched from early sources, gave new life to tunes almost forgotten and prompted a renewed interest in American folk music.
Set 1: “The Boatman’s Dance” is a minstrel show tune, an “original banjo melody” written in 1843 by Daniel Decatur Emmett, who later composed “Dixie.” Copland designed the song to reflect the Ohio River landscape, as demonstrated by the call and echo effect employed prior to each verse. A version of “The Dodger” appeared in the collection Our Singing Country published by John A. and Alan Lomax. This song was supposedly used in the campaign leading up to the 1884 presidential election won by Grover Cleveland. Copland reduced this song to three essential verses, “The Candidate,” “The Preacher,” and “The Lover,” changing the song’s rhythm and tempo to allow for dramatic singing and a lively accompaniment. “Long Time Ago” is a sentimental ballad and minstrel song, its lyrics adapted by American poet and songwriter George Pope Morris in 1837, with English composer Charles Edward Horn setting the words to music. “Simple Gifts” is a Shaker hymn dating from the mid-1800s, its text and melody quoted by Edward D. Andrews in The Gift to be Simple: Songs, Dances and Rituals of the American Shakers of 1940. Copland brought the tune to prominence when he used it as the basis for a masterful set of variations in his ballet, Appalachian Spring. In the playful nonsense song, “I Bought Me a Cat,” a children’s song which originated in the British Isles, singers and orchestra venture outside traditional boundaries as they imitate the sounds of barnyard animals.
Set 2: “Little Horses,” a children’s lullaby originating in the South, and possibly of African-American origins, is based on “All the Pretty Little Horses” as found in the Lomaxes’ Folk Song: U.S.A. “Zion’s Walls” is an American shape-note tune and revivalist song. Copland also used the tune of “Zion’s Walls” with different words in “The Promise of Living” from his opera, The Tender Land. Its original melody and text were credited to John G. McCurry, a farmer from Hart County, Georgia, who published the song collection The Social Harp in 1855. “The Golden Willow Tree” is a version of “The Golden Vanity,” an Anglo-American ballad also set by Benjamin Britten Copland's version is based on a performance by Justus Begley (with banjo accompaniment), recorded for Alan and Elizabeth Lomax in 1937. “At the River” is a tender hymn tune written by Robert Lowry, American literature professor and Baptist minister, that dates from 1865. It was later sung in memorial concerts for both Aaron Copland and Leonard Bernstein. “Ching-a-Ring Chaw,” an optimistic “ditty” characterized by syncopation and quickly sung syllables, is a re-writing of a minstrel song found in Brown University’s Harris Collection of American Poetry and Plays.
- Michaelene Gorney
The Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music, Don Michael Randel, ed., The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and London, England, 1996.
The Concise Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Music, Nicolas Slonimsky, ed., Schirmer Books, New York, New York, 1994.
Joseph Machlis, The Enjoyment of Music, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York, New York, 1977.
Howard Hanson: Symphony No. 2 “Romantic,” Seattle Symphony conducted by Gerard Schwartz, liner notes by Steven Lowe, NAXOS American Classics CD 8.559701.
Canton Symphony Orchestra, Symphony No. 2, Op. 30 (Romantic), by Howard Hanson, Program Notes by Kenneth C. Viant, https://www.cantonsymphony.org/441.
Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/ .
Aaron Copland, Copland on Music, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York, New York, 1960.
New Mexico Philharmonic, Aaron Copland: Selections from Old American Songs (1950-1952), program notes unattributed, http://nmphil.org/concerts/repertoire/copland-old-american-songs/.
The Greater Dallas Youth Orchestra, Old American Songs program notes by Jonathan Gentry, February 28, 2011, http://gdyo.blogspot.com/2011/02/program-notes-for-upcoming-march-6.html.
Boston Symphony Orchestra, Aaron Copland (1900-1990), “Old American Songs,” program notes by Steven Ledbetter, annotator for the Boston Symphony Orchestra from 1979 to 1998, http://bso.http.internapcdn.net/bso/images/program_notes/COPLAND_Selection-of-Old-American-Songs.pdf.
November 4, 2017
Earl Smith Strand Theater
The perennial favorite, Big Band night kicks off the 2017-2018 GSO Jazz series. A continuation of the GSO’s exploration of American music, this concert features the music of Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Woody Herman, Stan Kenton, Gordon Goodwin, Maria Schneider.
Georgia Symphony Youth Orchestra
December 17th, 2017
Bailey Center for the Arts
Leroy Anderson Blue Tango
Leroy Anderson Serenata
Henry Cowell Hymn & Fuguing Tune No.
Joan Tower Made in America
Georgia Symphony Orchestra
April 20, 2018
Ray Charles Performing Arts Center
April 21, 2018
Marietta Performing Arts Center
Volume 4 of the GSO’s multi-year presentation of American music explores black American composers including the world premiere of Moonlight Waltz by the GSO’s own N. E. Wheeler, and the Georgia premier of Daniel Bernard Roumain Human Songs and Stories and William Grant Still’s And They Lynched Him on a Tree.
Joining the GSO Chorus for this performance are artistic partners the Morehouse College Glee Club, Spelman College Glee Club, Georgia Spiritual Ensemble, Oral Moses, and the Uzee Brown Society of Choraliers.
Jonathan Bailey Holland Motor City Dance Mix
N. E. Wheeler Moonlight Waltz*
Adolphus Hailstork Shout for Joy
William Grant Still And They Lynched Him on a Tree**
Daniel Bernard Roumain Human Songs and Stories**
** Georgia Premiere
Program notes by Michaelene Gorney
Volume 4 of the GSO’s multi-year presentation of American music exploresblack American composers, including the world premiere of Moonlight Waltz by the GSO’s own N. E. Wheeler, and the Georgia premiere of Daniel Bernard Roumain’s Human Songs and Stories and William Grant Still’s And They Lynched Him on a Tree. Joining the GSO Chorus for this performance are artistic partners the Morehouse College Glee Club, Spelman College Glee Club, Georgia Spiritual Ensemble, Oral Moses, and the Uzee Brown Society of Choraliers.
Composer Jonathan Bailey Holland (b. 1974), classically trained at the Curtis Institute of Music and Harvard University, professes a love of all styles and types of music. His influences include not only the popular and classical music he has heard since childhood - his dad’s eclectic record collection contained “everything from Lou Rawls to Nat Adderley to Miles Davis to Bootsy Collins to Handel's Fireworks” - but his non-musical environment as well, including visual art, poetry, even sleep breathing cycles. Such all-encompassing interests led Holland to a position as professor of composition at Berklee College of Music in Boston, an environment rich in what he calls a “cross-pollination” of musical styles, and he currently serves as Chair of Composition, Theory and History at Boston Conservatory at Berklee.
Holland has been commissioned, performed and recorded by ensembles across the United States, including the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra. Recent highlights include: the release of Synchrony, a statement on Black Lives Matter, on Radius Ensemble’s Fresh Paint CD; the premiere of Equality by the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra featuring poetry of Maya Angelou with narration by actor Regina Taylor and rapper/actor Common; and the premiere of Forged Sanctuaries by Curtis on Tour, commemorating the centennial of the National Park Service. He was recently named Composer-in-Residence of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra for its 2018-19 season.
Motor City Dance Mix (2003) was commissioned and premiered by the Detroit Symphony Orchestra in commemoration of the re-opening of its Max. M. Fisher Orchestra Hall in 2003. With this commission, Holland saw an opportunity to “play up” the non-classical musical elements in his music, at the same time reflecting the DSO’s home in Motown. The result is a work which “hints at various styles of music,” capturing the spirit of Motown and Detroit while not actually quoting its tunes - an “American in Detroit,” if you will. Says the composer, “it’s a piece that I hope is a fun piece for the orchestra to play and for the audience to hear.”
Nicholas Emanuel Wheeler (b. 1987) is a music educator, violist and string bassist, and a composer of music for film, video games (his favorite genre), orchestra, chorus, and chamber ensemble. His favorite classical works are those of Brahms and Tchaikovsky. Born in Elizabeth, New Jersey, Wheeler says that he has been an Atlanta native since 1995, and it is here that he began his musical studies, from viola in elementary school, to violin, trombone, and piano at the DeKalb School of the Arts, to music education and composition at Columbus State University, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts in Music in 2009 and became a member of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity. Wheeler teaches general music, chorus, band and orchestra at Kings Ridge Christian School in Alpharetta, Georgia. His favorite hobby is running – he is an avid half/full marathoner – and his youtube site describes him as a “Composer, Gamer, Teacher, Bible believer and Very Politically Incorrect.” Tonight’s performance of Moonlight Waltz, which marks Wheeler’s debut as a symphonic composer, reveals his traditionally Romantic side, featuring the strings in a pensive lilting waltz with subtle chromatics, framed by softly dissonant passages.
Adolphus Hailstork (b. 1941) is a veritable living dean of classical music in the United States. Having studied music from an early age, after graduating from Howard University in 1963 he studied at the Manhattan School of Music, at the American Institute at Fontainebleau with Nadia Boulanger, and earned a doctorate in composition from Michigan State University. Hailstork has written extensively for chorus, solo voice, piano, organ, chamber ensembles, band, and orchestra, and his works have been widely commissioned, performed and recorded by such ensembles as the Philadelphia Orchestra, the Chicago Symphony and the New York Philharmonic. Recent commissions include I Speak of Peace (2013) for the Bismarck Symphony in honor of President John F. Kennedy, Robeson (2013) for the Trilogy Opera Company, Hercules (“the veriest dandy slave,” 2014) for the Grand Rapids Symphony, and Ndemara (2017) for the Myrelinques Festival of France. In 2016, the Atlanta Music Festival, presented by Emory University, commissioned a choral work by Hailstork for choirs, soloists and orchestra, with lyrics inspired by President Barack Obama’s speech “A More Perfect Union,” a speech in which the President addressed the role of race in the presidential campaign. Hailstork is Professor of Music and Eminent Scholar at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia.
Shout for Joy (1990), commissioned by the Bank Street Baptist Church of Norfolk, Virginia, in celebration of its 150th anniversary, illustrates Hailstork’s rich harmonic choral language which, while traditional, uses dissonance to dramatically express the text. This twelve-minute fanfare literally lives up to its title, featuring the performance ensemble in full force in its opening and closing sections. A subdued middle section, introduced by the organ and beginning on the words “The word of the Lord….,” is an appropriately introspective passage which gives voice to performers and chorus as soloists.
The son of teachers, William Grant Still (1895-1978) grew up in a home where learning and the arts were valued, where he heard opera and operettas, studied violin, and was immersed in the African-American culture of his time. While pursuing a Bachelor of Science degree at Wilberforce College, he also directed and wrote arrangements for the college band. By the mid-1920s, Still had worked in pit orchestras and music groups, including W. C. Handy’s, played professionally the violin, oboe, cello, and clarinet, studied at Oberlin, played violin in the U.S. Navy during World War I, played oboe in Noble Sissle and Eubie Blake’s production of Shuffle Along, conducted and arranged for recordings, and studied composition with the conservative George Chadwick and the ultramodern Edgar Varèse. Among his awards were Guggenheim and Rosenwald Fellowships and honorary doctorates from, among other institutions, Oberlin College, the Peabody Conservatory, and the New England Conservatory of Music.
In the pursuit of his art, and in the course of earning a living through music, there was no music venue that did not benefit from Still’s original scores, arrangements, and improvisation, from jazz band to orchestra, from radio to movies to recording studios, from stage pit to concert hall. Even were he not acknowledged as a first in so many ways – the first African-American composer to be performed by major orchestras here and abroad, to conduct a major American orchestra, to have an opera performed by a major company on national television – William Grant Still, with nine operas, five ballets, five symphonies, and numerous chamber and orchestral works to his credit, would have easily left his mark on the world of classical music alone.
…And They Lynched Him on a Tree (1940) is Still’s setting of a poem by Katherine Garrison Chapin (1890-1977). Born only 30 years after the end of the Civil War in Woodville, Mississippi, and no stranger to racism, Still had already highlighted social issues and injustices in the United States in works such as Three Negro Songs (1922), Darker America (1924), Afro American Symphony (1930), and Ebony Chronicle (1933). Garrison, a liberal who opposed racial discrimination, was encouraged by Alain Locke, a leader of the Harlem Renaissance, and Charlotte Mason (Garrison’s aunt), a supporter and benefactor of Harlem Renaissance artists, to correspond with Still about setting her poem.
Called by its creators “The Lynching Piece,” …And They Lynched Him on a Tree has rarely been performed, especially in the south. Harlan Zackery, Jr., in his excellent dissertation, “A Reception History and Conductor’s Guide to William Grant Still’s …And They Lynched Him on a Tree,” cites three reasons for this: its title, which immediately revives feelings of racial tension; the designated performance forces, to include a “Negro Chorus” and a “White Chorus,” the latter portraying both lynch mob and victim advocates; and the sheer discomfort of addressing the topic of lynching, called by theologian James Cone “a “memory white Americans would prefer to forget.” It is no surprise, then, that the state of Mississippi, the state in which Still was born, did not hear a performance of this work until 2009, and that Georgia is first hearing it in performance now, in 2018.
The narrative, as stated in Still’s score, is as follows: “It is night. In a clearing by the roadside among the turpentine pines, lit by the headlights from parked cars, a Negro has just been lynched. The white crowd who hung him, and those who watched, are breaking up now, going home. They sing together, get into their cars and drive away. Darkness falls on the road and the woods. Then slowly the Negroes come out from hiding to find the body of their friend. Among them is the mother of the man who was hung. In darkness they grope for the tree; when they find it the mother sings her dirge. The Negro chorus joins her and they retell the story of the man’s life and rehearse the tragedy. She is humble and broken but as they all sing together, the white voices joining the Negroes’, the song becomes strong in its impartial protest against mob lawlessness and pleads for a new tolerance to wipe this shadow of injustice off the land.”
Known for violin sounds influenced by electronic and urban music, a style he calls “dred violin,” Haitian-American Daniel Bernard Roumain (DBR, b. 1970), came from a home filled with music, from Haitian folk music to Beethoven, Stevie Wonder, The Eagles and ABBA, as well as music of South Floridian communities from The Bahamas, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Having discovered the violin at age five, he studied with conductor and bandleader Mitch Miller, played electric guitar and synthesizer in rock, hip-hop and jazz orchestras, attended Vanderbilt University’s Blair School of Music, and earned master’s and doctoral degrees from the University of Michigan, where he studied with William Bolcom, Michael Daugherty and Bright Sheng. He is currently Institute Professor of Practice at Arizona State University, where he teaches courses that “focus on translating personal accounts into creative expression and on the complex artistic, social and cultural impact of artists/activists.” “For me the arts are like a religion,” he says. “I still have and play the same violin I played when I was five years old. This inanimate object, the violin, has been the one constant thing in my life.”
One of the most innovative artists of his generation, DBR embraces all genres, writing music that combines tradition and culture in a blend of classical, funk, and rock, broadening and redefining concert music in a way that appeals to young audiences. His Call Them All (2006) uses a laptop computer in performance and his Hip-Hop Essay (1995) was one of the first works to fuse hip-hop and classical music in concert. Not one to limit his interests to the stage, DBR’s ESPN E:60 was nominated for a 2009 Sports EMMY Award for Outstanding Music, he has been a featured performer at technology conferences, and he has written large-scale, site-specific music for public parks. Among his works are scores for the Atlanta Ballet’s “Home in 7,” created in collaboration with choreographer Amy Seiwert and poet Marc Bamuthi Joseph.
Also committed to arts education, DBR encourages his students to write the music they feel rather than copying classical, or even popular, models. "I used to be very interested, as a composer, in documenting the African-American experience," he said to The New York Times’ Allan Kozinn. "Now I'm interested in the human experience. I'm interested in reaching a broader audience, but I'm not as interested in celebrity as community. I believe that where classical music began was in forwarding an idea for the common good. It's become something different in some ways. But I still believe that composers are the priests of that, the keepers of the flame."
Of Human Songs and Stories (2002), DBR writes in the Composer’s Note to his score:
Human Songs and Stories, For Orchestra, Narrator, and The People marks the culmination of an important creative period in my life. It is the final piece in a series of orchestral essays that includes also Haitian Essay, Hip-Hop Essay, and Harlem Essay. I was approached in August of 2001, by representatives for the founders of Texas Public Radio, with a commission to write a work honoring the founders of KPAC-FM, San Antonio, on the occasion of the station’s 20th anniversary. I knew immediately that this composition had to unite and provoke, inform and infuse, delight and demand in the same way that quality radio programming does.The mission of the founders of public radio, it seemed to me, was to offer the listening public a choice by providing a voice to those who might otherwise remain silent, unseen and unheard. This was a guiding principle in the composition of Human Songs and Stories, and it extends not only to the work’s “narrative” performers, but also to specific players in the orchestra.The music you will hear is mine, but the words are not. The words emanate from two different sources: the perennially resounding Bible (in this case, Genesis), and the minds and mouths of “The People” on stage. In many important ways, then, this is my story; but it is also the story of the individuals on stage who recite their own words, expressions of their own thoughts and ideas. It is to all of them that I dedicate this work.
Nicolas Slonimsky, ed., Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, Schirmer Book, New York, New York, 1994.
Don Michael Randel, The Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1996.
National Endowment for the Arts, art Works Blog, Art Talk with Jonathan Bailey Holland, interview by Paulette Beete, January 15, 2015, https://www.arts.gov/art-works/2015/art-talk-jonathan-bailey-holland.
Boston Conservatory at Breklee, Jonathan Bailey Holland, https://bostonconservatory.berklee.edu/directory/jonathan-bailey-holland.
Jonathan Bailey Holland on Motor City Dance Mix. October 13, 2010, and Jonathan Bailey Holland: Style and Recent Work, October 14, 2010, interviews as Columbia Orchestra Guest Composer, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KrtMC-UKRjE and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dMPmnLGlgsk.
Broadway World Cincinnati, “Jonathan Bailey Holland Announced as Composer-in-Residence of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, January 26, 2018, https://www.broadwayworld.com/cincinnati/article/Jonathan-Bailey-Holland-Announced-As-Composer-In-Residence-Of-The-Cincinnati-Symphony-Orchestra-20180126
Youtube, Nicholas Emanuel Wheeler, https://www.youtube.com/user/nickmaestro/about.
Nicholas Emanuel Wheeler, email to Michaelene Gorney dated February 3, 2018.
Emory News Center, “Atlanta Music Festival promotes harmony across racial, social landscapes,” October 31, 2016, http://news.emory.edu/stories/2016/10/er_atlanta_music_festival/campus.html.
Carl Fischer Music, Adolphus Hailstork, https://www.carlfischer.com/composer/hailstork-adolphus/.
Nseobong Ekpo, Expanding the American Canon: A Conductor's Compendium of Black American Orchestral Composers (Doctoral dissertation), 2015, Retrieved from http://scholarcommons.sc.edu/etd/3098.
Georgetown University Library, :And They Lynched Him On A Tree: William Grant Still (189501978) and Katherine Biddle (1890-1977),” April 1 and August 31, 2006, https://www.library.georgetown.edu/exhibition/and-they-lynched-him-to-a-tree.
The Aquila Digital Community, The University of Southern Mississippi, Harlan Zackery, Jr., “A Reception History and Conductor’s Guide to William Grant Still’s …And They Lynched Him on a Tree,” Spring 5-2016, https://aquila.usm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1332&context=dissertations.
Robert L. Zangrando, The NAACP Crusade Against Lynching, 1909-1950 , Temple University Press, Philadelphia, 1980.
Wayne D. Shirley, “William Grant Still’s Choral Ballad And They Lynched Him on a Tree,” American Music 12 (Winter 1994).
Brandon Williams, “The Shadow Still Lingers: A Conductor’s Guide for William Grant Still’s …And They Lynched Him on a Tree,” Choral Journal, March, 2018, Vol. 58 No. 8.
Subito Music Corporation, Daniel Bernard Roumain (DBR), http://www.subitomusic.com/composers/highlights/daniel-bernard-roumain-dbr/.
Allan Kozzin, “This Is Really Longhair, and the Violin Is Cool,” The New York Times, January 2, 2005, http://www.nytimes.com/2005/01/02/arts/music/this-is-really-longhair-and-the-violin-is-cool.html.
Opera Philadelphia, What’s On, On Stage 2017-2018, We Shall Not Be Moved, Daniel Bernard Roumain, https://www.operaphila.org/whats-on/on-stage-2017-2018/we-shall-not-be-moved/composer/.
Arizona State University, Herberger Institute for Design and the Arts, “Composer, Violinist and Artist-Entrepreneur Daniel Bernard Roumain joins ASU as Institute Professor,” May 6. 2016, https://herbergerinstitute.asu.edu/news/composer-violinist-and-artist-entrepreneur-daniel-bernard-roumain-joins-asu-institute-professor.
This performance by the GSO Chorus presents works of Berstein, Larsen, and Lauridsen, creating vignettes of a cross section of our country.
April 28, 2019
Bailey Performance Center
Leonard Bernstein Chichester Psalms
Libby Larsen The Settling Years
Morten Lauridsen Les Chansons Des Roses
William Averitt Afro American Fragments
Eric Barne Lambscapes